Most common learning disabilities
Maybe you remember your friend/classmate or maybe you have seen a movie where a school-age child can’t read something, or he does it with great difficulty?
The child is in agony, can’t repeat the syllable behind the teacher, and says he has a headache. Most people will say that this child is just lazy and wants to avoid reading a boring book or solving a complicated arithmetic example. Peers will look obliquely and make fun of it when their helpless classmate will confuse words and letters while reading again. But only experienced specialists – speech therapists, special education teachers, and psychologists will be able to diagnose and recognize the most common learning disabilities.
What are the learning difficulties and what are the different learning disabilities?
The term “learning disabilities” appeared recently in the vocabulary of neuropsychologists, teachers, speech therapists. Previously, a child (who attends school preparation courses) could not understand tasks well, it was difficult to memorize words and numbers, it was poorly concentrated and was not attentive. That is, parents and inexperienced teachers called such children unstable, lazy, hyperactive, or on the contrary, slow compared to other peers.
But all we have listed above are the first signs and hints that the child has problems with neural connections and may have a neurobiological character. And if you don’t find a certain type of learning disability in time, then it will be difficult to correct the situation in the future.
Today we will consider different learning disabilities, their characteristics, and why they occur in small children.
Different types of learning disabilities
According to world statistics, 15-20% of children from all over the planet have different types of specific learning disabilities. Dysgraphia, dyslexia, and dyscalculia are the most common examples of learning disabilities. And very often when a child has difficulty pronouncing spelling, or counting, they are sent to a speech pathologist. Where an incompetent specialist can make a false diagnosis that is associated with mental/psychiatric retardation or attribute the child to the mentally retarded at all.
Parents of such children usually give up and think that their child has no chance to develop his or her weaknesses. But fortunately, this is a correctable situation and there is no need to put an end to the normal performance of a schoolchild. Modern research and correction methods give a huge chance that dyslexia, for example, is not permanent. Let’s examine in detail the most popular child learning disabilities types separately.
Learning disabilities list
Dyslexia is a disorder that is associated with reading, comprehension, and understanding of text materials. The child with dyslexia has problems related to mental functions that are responsible for the normal development of certain skills, especially those that participate in the perception and reproduction of text.
The diagnosis of dyslexia doesn’t mean that the child is unable to perceive information effectively. A pupil can understand the essence by hearing or tactfully, but it doesn’t characterize his level of development or inability to learn like everyone else.
In other words, certain areas of the brain are characterized by low activity and density in dyslexia. This disease has a neurobiological origin.
Why does a child develop dyslexia?
Very often the cause in the course of pregnancy (circumstances and complications during the birth) and harmful habits of a pregnant woman. In addition, it is also worth noting other factors:
- Severe infections or brain diseases (for example, meningitis);
- Brain injuries, disorders that affect the balanced development of both hemispheres of the brain;
- Too heavy study load or conversely, complete neglect of the child’s full development.
And it is not necessarily that the child should come from a dysfunctional family, because this disorder is biological in origin.
Classification of learning disability – types of dyslexia
- Phonemic (acoustic), when a child confuses syllables in a word, distorts its structure, for example, a child can read not “a dog” but “a god”;
- Optical (a child can’t read a word because it is written, but in a mirror image, or he can’t focus on where he is reading now, can’t focus);
- Semantic (a person can’t fully understand the essence of the read, he understands only the essence of the individual words from the sentences);
- Grammatical (a child can’t agree on the time in a sentence or agree on the end of words).
Dyscalculia continues our list of specific learning disabilities. If in simple words, it is not a person’s ability to arithmetic. Children with dyscalculia cannot understand the number of objects at a glance and without recalculation. 5-7% of children suffer from this disorder worldwide.
This diagnosis is related to a part of the brain (parietal lobe groove) that is responsible for arithmetic operations. In people with this disease, this part is underdeveloped and smaller in volume than in other people.
A special study conducted in the UK shows that people with dyscalculia (who have difficulty with numerical operations) earn less, are more often ill and have problems with the law.
Such a person may be completely normal, fully developed, and perform well in academic activities. Some people with dyscalculia have a good understanding of geometry and have mastered programming at a decent level. But they don’t fully understand the meaning of numbers: how their number can correspond to a certain figure.
For example, if you give the child two playing cards – 5 and 9 then the person can not tell at once which of them has an advantage. The child with dyscalculia should count all badges on both cards and then tell the opinion.
Such children have difficulties in learning and they cannot perceive and assimilate so quickly a certain amount of information as to their classmates. But if you notice a lag in time and work with a team of specialists, your child has every chance to improve their skills and abilities!